2007 was Peak Energy in the USA (all sources)

USA energy consumption data from flowcharts.llnl.gov Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

related pages:

Peak Energy in USA was 2007

David Holmgren, the co-orginator of permaculture, is author of "Future Scenarios: How Communities can adapt to Peak Oil and Climate Change" www.futurescenarios.org

"Economic recession is the only proven mechanism for a rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions ... most of the proposals for mitigation from Kyoto to the feverish efforts to construct post Kyoto solutions have been framed in ignorance of Peak Oil. As Richard Heinberg has argued recently, proposals to cap carbon emissions annually, and allowing them to be traded, rely on the rights to pollute being scarce relative to the availability of the fuel. Actual scarcity of fuel may make such schemes irrelevant."


non-renewable energy


renewable energy



This chart from the U.S. Department of Energy is complex yet simple. It shows what each major energy source is used for: coal, nukes, and dams make electricity, oil is mostly for transportation, natural gas is used for heating homes, electricity, and industrial processes. Those sources are either near or at their peak. In the short run we need efficiency to mitigate the early stages of decline. We also need to reduce consumption for ecological and social justice reasons. Scaling up forest biomass to replace coal would require massive expansion of deforestation. A "quad" is a quadrillion British Thermal Units (one BTU is roughly equal to lighting a match).